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Java Introduction

C++ vs Java

C++ Java
Platform dependent, it depends on the platform,
Code needs to be compiled separately for each platform,
and binaries are often platform-dependent.
Platform Independent, Code is compiled into an intermediate form (bytecode) that runs
on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). This enables "write once, run anywhere"
(WORA) portability, as long as the target platform has a compatible JVM.
Main usage - Used more for system programming. Mainly used for applications, like programs
on your computer, websites, big business apps, and even mobile apps.
Generally considered to have a more complex syntax,
which might be challenging for beginners.
It allows low-level operations and features like pointers.
Designed to be simpler and more beginner-friendly. It has a cleaner syntax
and eliminates certain complexities, such as explicit pointers.
Requires manual memory management using
concepts like new and delete or malloc and free.
This can be challenging for beginners and may lead to memory leaks or
segmentation faults if not done correctly.
Has automatic memory management through garbage collection.
This simplifies memory management for beginners, as the
system automatically deallocates memory when objects are no longer in use.
Supports both procedural and object-oriented programming paradigms.
It allows for a mix of object-oriented and procedural styles.
Strictly follows the object-oriented programming paradigm. All code is encapsulated
within classes, and everything is treated as an object.
Supports explicit use of pointers, allowing direct memory manipulation.
While powerful, it can be a source of bugs and errors for beginners.
No explicit pointer support. Memory management is handled by
the JVM, reducing the chances of pointer-related issues.
Uses both try-catch blocks and the throw keyword for
exception handling.
Utilizes a similar try-catch mechanism but simplifies exception handling by not
requiring the explicit specification of the exceptions a method may throw.

Why was Java developed?

Java was created by a team led by James Gosling in the early 1990s to make a programming language that could work on different types of computers. They wanted to solve the problem of writing code that could run on any device, no matter what kind of computer it had.

Here's why they made Java:

  1. Works Everywhere: They wanted a language where you could write code once and use it on any device. So, Java lets you write code that can run on different computers without needing changes.
  2. Connects Computers: Java was designed to help with building programs that could talk to each other over a network. This was super important as the internet was growing, and Java made it easier to build applications that worked online.
  3. Easy to Build and Share Code: Java follows the principles of object-oriented programming, which is like building with Lego blocks. It makes it simpler to organize and reuse code. You can also share your Java code with others easily.
  4. Safe and Secure: Java was made to be safe. It has features that protect against security issues, which is crucial, especially on the internet.
  5. Simple and Familiar: Java was created to be easy to read and use. If you already know some other programming languages like C or C++, Java's syntax will look familiar to you.

In the end, Java became a popular language used for many things like websites, big business applications, and even mobile apps (like Android).